I2MOV - Radioamatore

Amateur Radio Service



The amateur radio activity, started in the first years of the XX century, is a most ancient activity in telecommunications field.
The definition of the Amateur Radio Service in the International Telecommunications rule by   International Telecommunications Union (I.T.U.), tells:
the amateur radio transmission must be personal and treating technical matters; they must have scarce importance to don't justify the use of telephonic, telegraphic and postal services.
The Administrations of each country establish the technical qualifications to release the radio operator licenses and define the amateur radio operational conditions.
Purpose of the national rules:
a) recognize the value of the voluntary non commercial telecommunication service, particularly in  cases of emergency and calamity;
b) recognize the amateur radio ability contribute to the progress of the radio;
c) encourage the amateur radio with rules that provide to bettering the operational ability and technique;
d) increase the quality of the operators and technical experienced in the radio field;
e) give the possibility to better the friendship and the international collaboration.
The Amateur Radio Service is the only way that allows to the people, distant many kilometers, to meet and know.
This is the general formulation of the Amateur Radio Service activity of  I.T.U. and I.A.R.U. (International Amateur Radio Union), the corporate body constituted from the union of the Amateur Radio Associations of the world.
This is therefore the image that each Amateur Radio must furnish to maintain his representative qualification of an important telecommunications service.
The dawn of the amateur radio
The amateur radio begins with the physical phenomenons studied by Maxwell and Hertz. Subsequently Guglielmo Marconi puts all in practical application. With the own intuitions, in 1895, Marconi develops the first system of telecommunication, invent the antenna and transmitting and receiving messages by radio. In 1898 connects Dover (England) and Vimereux (France) through the British channel; in 1901, the S letter, three points of the Morse alphabet, through the Atlantic Ocean between Cornwall (Poldhu) and St. John's - Newfoundland (Canada).
The first amateurs experimenters, receive the news that 3400 km of ocean, contrary to the affirmations of the official science, was jumped by the radio waves.
Many rudimentary transmitters and receivers was built in Europe and in America; the amateur radio movement started in all countries, until to arrive at his official recognition.
Who are the Amateur Radio
The majority are people that don't work in the field of the radio; but there is also technical professional that work in the electronic radio industry. 
The Amateur Radio are prevalently masculine, but there are also feminine enthusiastic Amateur Radio.
The Amateur Radio in the world overcome 2 million today, three  quarters are in Japan and U.S.A.
In Italy, the number of licenses is about 36000.
A license authorizes the Amateur Radio to communicate with Morse code (telegraphy) or by means the language (telephone).
The Amateur Radio use also teleprinter, television and digital transmission, encoded according to the more common standards. The Amateur Radio transmissions are on the assigned frequency by the international conventions. The license is issued by the government (in Italy, Ministero delle Comunicazioni). The transmission license, establishes the frequencies and transmission power and assigns a personal call sign to any Amateur Radio.
The prefix (the first part of the call sign) was assigned by the I.T.U. rules.
The last part of the call sign is composed by three letters and are assigned by "Ministero delle Comunicazioni".
To obtain the transmission license need get first the radio operator licence; to obtain the radio operator licence need to pass an exam at  Ministero delle Comunicazioni.
The examination is theoretical and practical, need also transmit and receive with the Morse code.
National and international organizations
The I.T.U., International Telecommunications Union, founded in 1865, is a specialized sector of the United Nations and his activity is divided in three Regions of the world.
The region 1 with Europe, Africa, the ex U.R.S.S. and few parts of Asia (Italy belongs to this region); the Region 2 with America;  the region 3 with Asia and the rest of the world.
The Amateurs Radio of the world are organized in National Associations.
The National Associations are part of the I.A.R.U., International Amateur Radio Union, founded in 1925 to represent and coordinate the activity in the world, especially towards the Governments.
The A.R.I. Associazione Radioamatori Italiani (already Associazione Radiotecnica Italiana), founded in 1927 and erect in Moral corporate body in 1950 is the Association that represents around 20.000 Amateur Radio.

The frequency
The Amateur Radio showed the utility of the short waves, unused before, for big distances.
Since 1923, in the administrative worlds meeting (WARC), the governments tried to deprive Amateur Radio of the own frequencies parts.
The utility shown by Amateur Radio Service avoid to suffer cuts in Amateur Radio frequencies.
The Amateur Radio and technical progress
The experimentation of Amateur activity given a considerable contribution to the development of  radio communications.
Many circuits was developed and improved by Amateur Radio; new techniques and new frequencies  are worth by Amateur Radio.
The Amateur Radio participated in spatial researches, constituting an enormous listener radio organization. From the first Sputnik (November 1957), to the construction of  repeating transceivers stations installed on satellites. The study of electromagnetic waves are develops with good results:
anomalies, northern auroras, meteoric swarms, etc. Also the unexplored zones of  the high frequency, the microwaves.
Technical-operational publications
The Amateur Radio associations realized an important technical literature on most varied technique of the radio communications expects.
They publish monthly magazines where described technical, operational and associative appearances of the Amateur Radio activity and manuals, guides with elementary theory and more specialistic and advanced techniques.
The international friendship
The Amateur Radio represents an unique occasion to make friendships "in air".
In each nation during the year having many meetings possibility in occasion of the frequent shows, etc.
The social appearance
Since many decades the Amateur Radio are available also with they operational ability and technical preparation to intervene in places with emergency problems.
The Amateur Radio arrive always first and organize radio contact in each disaster due to earthquakes and floods.
Many people with physical handicap  find and make many friends in Amateur Radio frequency.
The Amateur Radio future
The Amateur Radio Service will continue to go on if the public administrations will continue to recognize the irreplaceable Amateur Radio support.
An efficient Amateur Radio movement in the countries in development could constitute an important reserve of technical operator.
The responsible Authorities recognized the Amateur Service as an effective method to give a technical education at least cost.
That is particularly important in underdeveloped nations, that don't arrange otherwise the possibility to provide for this education.
The Amateur Radio in Italy
Guglielmo Marconi could be considered the first Amateur Radio of the world, not only by a scientific point, but also chronological point; an Amateur Radio that also was the first President, in 1927, of the dawning Association which gathered the precursors of the Italian Amateur Radio.
In Italy this activity came looked with suspect from the authorities, and the Amateur Radio, between prohibitions, sequestrations and injustices, maintained their passion in an atmosphere of clandestinity life.
In 1946 the allied authorities of occupation, in whose countries the Amateur Radio movement was developed meantime, uttered the first provisional permissions.
But the return of the powers to the Italian authorities, introduced again restrictions on the activities of the Amateur Radio.  The history is always the same.
These restrictions was very bitter because in other States were grant more privileges.
The Associazione Radiotecnica Italiana, subsequently erect in Moral corporate body (1950), began an along and often hard job to sensitize the public administration about the Amateur Radio problems and his considerable importance in national interest.
The floods came, also earthquakes: from Polesine to Firenze, to Sicilia, to Friuli, to Irpinia. For the first turns the chronicle discover the Amateur Radio, these hidden private citizens able to replace the officials nets telecommunication interrupted or destroyed.
The organs of the State began to understand about the utility of the Amateur Radio Service and they work in more unexpected conditions and with fortune means, they realized what the powerful, but slow official machine, is not sure able to improvise.
For 48 hours the unique communications with flooded Firenze, for instance, was realized by Amateur Radio.
In many cases an appeal for medicinal launched by the Amateur Radio allowed to save human lives, or at least to assuage the sufferings.



Ultimo aggiornamento: 09-01-16